Introduction of a human or Syrian hamster X chromosome (derived from BHK-191-5C cell hybrids) into tumorigenic mouse A9 cells via microcell fusion induced changes in cellular morphology and a retardation of cellular growth. The suppression of growth of the hybrids could be abolished, however, by daily changes of medium containing 20% serum. G-banding analysis showed the absence of a single, cytogenetically identifiable, indigenous X chromosome (marker Z) in two of four hybrid clones after an X chromosome was transferred from either hamster or human cells. All hybrids were tumorigenic when tested in nude mice. Together, these data suggest that the loss of the mouse X chromosome took place probably because of growth inhibitory effects imposed on hybrid cells due to the increase in X chromosome dosage. In addition, our results show a lack of association between the phenotype of cellular growth suppression in vitro and the phenotype of suppression of tumorigenicity in vivo.