X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2). Thirty-three novel AVPR2 mutations were identified in 62 families that were not included in our previous studies. This study describes the diversity of mutations observed in a total of 117 families, the number of affected people at the time of diagnosis, skewed X chromosome inactivation in severely affected females, the inferred parental origin of de novo mutations, and it provides estimates of incidence. Among 117 families, there were 82 different putative disease-causing mutations. Based on haplotype analysis, it can be inferred that when the same AVPR2 mutation is identified in different families that were not known to be related, the mutations most likely arose independently. More than half of the families had only one affected male; two families presented with a severely affected female and no family history of NDI. A de novo mutation arose during oogenesis in the mother in 20% of isolated cases. The estimate of about 8.8 per million male live births of the incidence of X-linked NDI in the province of Quebec, Canada may be representative of the general population except in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, where the incidence is more than six times higher. Documentation of the diversity of mutations will assist in revealing the full spectrum of clinical variation. Discussion of genetic and population genetic aspects of X-linked NDI may contribute to early diagnosis and treatment.