The cause of stillbirth and preterm delivery is often unknown. We studied the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in mothers with stillbirth and preterm labor. Serum specimens from 72 mothers with stillbirth after the 21st gestational week, and from 48 mothers with preterm delivery between gestational weeks 23 and 29, both from the greater Helsinki area, and cord blood from 96 consecutive liveborn deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University of Helsinki, were studied for antibodies to C. trachomatis immunotypes CJHI, GFK and BED by microimmunofluorescence test. The prevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies was highest, 33.3%, in mothers with stillbirth, 18.8% in mothers with preterm delivery, and 10.4% in cord blood. The IgM seropositivity rate was high among mothers with preterm delivery (8.3%). We conclude that C. trachomatis IgG antibodies are frequently detected in sera from mothers with stillbirth, suggesting past infection, while mothers with preterm delivery often have serum IgM antibodies, suggesting of acute infection.