Reducing health inequities associated with poverty is an important public health nursing role. This article describes the scope of research on the health of low-income Canadian women. The research included was published in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 1997. The 26 articles retrieved are summarized according to the focus of the study and the composition of the sample. Most addressed personal health practices and health status. Only one intervention study was identified. The studies and the findings of this analysis are discussed in relation to three recommendations for research on women's health: an emphasis on social context, including the structural conditions affecting women's health; active participation of women in the research process; and recognition of diversity among low-income women. Suggested priority areas for future research are: intervention studies; studies addressing the structural context of the lives of low-income women; research strategies that enhance the participation of women in the research process; and increased involvement of diverse groups of women such as homeless women and women of varied ethnic backgrounds, including First Nations women.