Island populations are most informative in the study of the genetic structure of human aggregates. These populations are often of small size, thus violating the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of infinite size. Some geographically isolated island populations are further subdivided by religion, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors, reducing their effective sizes and facilitating genetic changes due to stochastic processes. Because of extreme geographic and social isolation, fishing communities or outports of Newfoundland have been investigated for genetic microdifferentiation through the founder effect and genetic drift (Crawford et al. 1995). The purpose of this paper is to examine the population structure of 10 Newfoundland outports using the allelic frequencies derived from 12 red cell antigens. To achieve this goal, first we calculated gene frequencies using maximum-likelihood estimation procedures. Second, we used R-matrix methods to explore population differentiation. Third, we regressed mean per-locus heterozygosity on genetic distance from the gene frequency centroid to identify the most isolated populations. On the basis of this information, the three outports of Seal Cove, Island Harbor, and Tilting were found to be genetically differentiated from the other small populations. Moreover, religious and geographic subdivisions appear to explain the observed genetic variation.