Following reports of high infant mortality in Central Vancouver Island, total and cause-specific infant death rates (IDR) for Status Indians and for Other Residents of Vancouver Island (VI) were compared to those for their counterparts in the rest of the province (RoP). Data for 1991-97, in which Status Indians had been identified through record linkage, were obtained from BC Vital Statistics. The IDR was higher on VI than in RoP for Status Indians (IR = 1.84: 95% CI; 1.43, 3.37), but not for Other Residents (IR = 0.91: 95% CI; 0.79, 1.05). SIDS and perinatal conditions were responsible for most of the increase, with SIDS accounting for about half. This study demonstrates that, in addition to the well-recognized difference in infant mortality between Status Indians and Other Residents, important regional differences exist within the Status Indian population itself. As these differences are relevant to effective health planning and evaluation, health information systems should enable calculation of separate rates for Status Indians.