This study shows the dynamics of the epidemiological process over the last decade and presents the causes of the deterioration in TB control. Explanations are given for the TB mortality rate increase, the trustworthiness of the data, and the factors influencing its formation. The present-day TB epidemiological situation in Russia is characterized by an increase in exogenous infection. Peaks of epidemiological deterioration were registered in 1993 and 1999. Marked deterioration of the epidemiological situation in 1999 resulted from an economic crisis in August 1998 and a consequent dramatic decrease in the living standards of the population. In the 1990s this trend has changed. TB infection spreads according to trends that are quite similar to those at the beginning of 20th century. The official TB morbidity rate does not reflect the true level of incidence because of undetected TB cases (approx. 10%).