The Uppsala county regional group of the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (STRAMA) sent a questionnaire to all the general practitioners in the county concerning their knowledge of antibiotics and bacterial resistance. The questionnaire also asked which sources were used for information on these topics, and inquired as to their views concerning the services provided by the local clinical microbiological laboratory. A third part of the questionnaire contained descriptions of three patients with infectious diseases, and each general practitioner was asked to indicate appropriate diagnostic tests and/or antibiotic treatment. The questionnaire was completed by 70% (100/145). The general awareness of which antibiotics to use for empirical treatment of urinary tract infection was good. Awareness of antibiotic resistance in S. pyogenes, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and MRSA was moderately good (59-80%). About 60% thought it was difficult to find information concerning resistance and use of antibiotics. Lack of time was the main reason for not being able to seek such information actively. The regional STRAMA-group believes that this kind of survey followed by reporting back of results with informative comments on the topics concerned is a useful model for education.