Immunity was evaluated in 890 schoolchildren living in rural localities of the Central and Western lands of the Orenburg Region. There was a correlation between the immunological parameters of the examinees and the levels of trace elements in environmental objects. The children's immunity showed unilateral changes in the studied parameters as compared with the regional standards. The closest correlation was found between the absolute count of T lymphocytes, stab neutrophils, the levels of IgA, IgM in children and the content of I, Sr, Mn, Cr in cereals and vegetables, as well as between the levels of IL-2 and alpha-TNF and the blood concentrations of Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Co in the examined children. The immunological changes may result from the imbalance of trace elements in the studied environmental objects and biological substrates.