The enzyme immunoassay system (EIA) for differentiation of antibodies in therapeutic heterogeneous antitoxic serum and antibodies to Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxigenic strains in patients and carriers was developed. The use of EIA permitted the dynamic evaluation of the characteristics of humoral antitoxic and antibacterial immune response in 50 patients with the localized and disseminated forms of stomatopharyngeal diphtheria and 14 "healthy" carriers of toxigenic C. diphtheriae. As revealed in this study, the symptoms of the disease in patients with disseminated forms of stomatopharyngeal diphtheria developed in the presence of statistically significant low quantitative values of antitoxic and antibacterial antibodies to C. diphtheriae antigens. In the group of patients with the localized forms of the disease the initially low level of antitoxic antibodies was detected with the concentration of antibacterial antibodies remaining unchanged. During the period of convalescence the levels of antitoxic antibodies in both groups reached those of healthy persons. In case of localized forms of the disease the level of antibacterial antibodies decreased as compared with healthy persons, starting from the second week of the disease. The period of convalescence in the disseminated forms was characterized by the low concentration of antibacterial antibodies. Carrier state was formed in the presence of high levels of antitoxic antibodies and significantly low levels of antibacterial ones.