The skin of bakers is heavily exposed to dough, spices, water and detergents. This is follow-up of a previous Swedish questionnaire study showing bakers to have a 3-fold increased risk of hand eczema. The aims were to establish diagnoses and to study consequences of hand eczema. From a cohort study of 2226 bakers, a random sample among bakers reporting hand eczema was examined. Of 60 randomly selected bakers reporting a history of hand eczema, 52 attended an examination comprising a standardized interview, documentation of clinical skin signs, patch testing and prick testing with standard and bakery series, and serum analyses. In all, 45 bakers confirmed a history of hand eczema, for which 11 (24%) had been on sick leave, with a median duration of 14 weeks. 13 (29%) had changed their occupation due to skin disease, 19 had positive patch test reactions to standard contact allergens - and 5 to bakery contact allergens. 16 bakers had positive prick tests to standard allergens, 10 to bakery allergens, of whom 9 reacted to flours. Since considerable medical and social consequences of hand eczema are seen, thorough diagnosis of contact allergy and IgE-mediated allergy in bakers, as well as preventive measures, are essential.