Limited experience is available on the feasibility and efficacy of high-dose therapy (HDT) supported by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Therefore, a nation-wide survey was conducted in adult patients transplanted for PTCL in Finland during 1990-2001. After histopathology review, 37 patients were identified. The median age was 46 years (16-68) at the time of ASCT. Histology included PTCL not otherwise specified in 14 patients, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in 14 patients, and other in nine patients. Disease status at the time of ASCT was CR/PR1 in 18 patients; CR/PR2 in 14 patients, and other in five patients. HDT consisted of either BEAC (N=22) or BEAM (N=15), supported by blood stem cells in 34 patients (92%). Early transplant-related mortality was 11%. With a median follow-up of 24 months from HDT, 16 patients (43%) have relapsed or progressed. The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) was 54%. Patients with ALCL had superior OS when compared with other subtypes (85 vs 35%, P=0.007). OS at 5 years was 63% in patients transplanted in CR/PR1 vs 45% in those transplanted in other disease status (P=NS). Prospective studies are needed to define the role of ASCT in this lymphoma type.