The authors investigated the effect of amalgam fillings and fish consumption on urine mercury level (UHg), in children aged 4-8 years old inclusive. Using a sample of 60 children, we found that children with amalgam fillings had significantly higher UHg levels than children without amalgams (geometric mean=1.412microg Hg/g versus 0.436 microg Hg/g, respectively, P = 0.0001). Subjects with reported higher fish consumption also had significantly higher UHgs (P = 0.004). Univariate analyses provide evidence of an association between elevated UHg level and young age (P = 0.009), short height (P = 0.024), and low weight (P = 0.049) in children with amalgam chewing surfaces. We also found a negative correlation between urine mercury and age (-0.378), height (-0.418), and weight (-0.391). A multiple logistic regression model shows that the presence of amalgam fillings leads to increased odds of high UHg in children (OR=47.18), even after adjusting for high fish consumption (OR=8.66) and height (OR=11.36).