Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component, and may involve autoimmune processes. Support for this latter hypothesis comes from the identification of a subgroup of children, described by the term pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), with onset of OCD symptoms following streptococcal infections. Genes involved in immune response therefore represent possible candidate genes for OCD, including the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which plays an important role in mediating the complement cascade in the immune system. Four polymorphisms in the MOG gene, a dinucleotide CA repeat (MOG2), a tetranucleotide TAAA repeat (MOG4), and 2 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms, C1334T and C10991T, were investigated for the possibility of association with OCD using 160 nuclear families with an OCD proband. We examined the transmission of alleles of these four polymorphisms with the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). A biased transmission of the 459-bp allele (allele 2: chi2 = 5.255, P = 0.022) of MOG4 was detected, while MOG2, C1334T, and C10991T showed no statistically significant bias in the transmission of alleles. The transmission of the C1334T.MOG2.C10991T.MOG4 haplotype 126.96.36.199 (chi2 = 6.426, P = 0.011) was also significant. Quantitative analysis using the family-based association test (FBAT) was significant for MOG4 in total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity score (allele 2: z = 2.334, P = 0.020). Further investigations combining genetic, pathological, and pharmacological strategies, are warranted.