Informed by Mayer's (Progr. Hum. Geogr 20 (1996) 441) political ecology of disease framework, this paper investigates First Nation's perceptions of the links between environment, economy and health and well-being. A case study of 'Namgis First Nation (Alert Bay, British Columbia, Canada) is used to explore the risks and benefits of salmon aquaculture for British Columbia's First Nations. Analysis of interview data (n = 23) indicates strong links between reduced access to environmental resources, marginal participation in the economy, and declining community health and well being. Results suggest that aquaculture development has further decreased the community's access to environmental resources, thereby restricting those economic, social, and cultural activities that determine good health and well-being for this community.