The rate of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to increase globally. The disproportionately high rate of ESRD among the many growing indigenous populations and racial/ethnic minorities in the United States highlights the need to reassess present treatment strategies to more appropriately identify and manage chronic kidney disease in diverse communities. Similar projections have been noted worldwide. This discrepancy between ESRD rates among racial and ethnic minority groups, and treatment strategies is due to several factors, many of which are modifiable. These include the individual, the health care provider/system, and limited participation in controlled clinical trials. Although it is unfortunate that this disparity continues to exist, a thoughtful and compassionate approach to addressing the role of diverse biobehavioral and sociocultural factors might be the key to effective translation of emerging scientific advances into improved clinical outcomes for all patients with chronic kidney disease.