Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and quitting is highly beneficial. Yet, less than 30% of CVD patients stop smoking. Relapse-prevention strategies seem most effective when initiated during the exacerbation of the disease.
A nurse-delivered inpatient smoking cessation program based on the Transtheoretical Model with telephone follow-up tailored to levels of readiness to quit smoking was evaluated on smoking abstinence and progress to ulterior stages of change.
Participants (N = 168) were randomly assigned by cohorts to inpatient counseling with telephone follow-up, inpatient counseling, and usual care. The inpatient intervention consisted of a 1-hr counseling session, and the telephone follow-up included 6 calls during the first 2 months after discharge. The nursing intervention was tailored to the individual's stage of change. End points at 2 and 6 months included actual and continuous smoking cessation rates (biochemical markers) and increased motivation (progress to ulterior stages of change).
Assuming that surviving patients lost to follow-up were smokers, the 6-month smoking abstinence rate was 41.5% in the inpatient counseling with telephone follow-up group, compared with 30.2% and 20% in the inpatient counseling and usual care groups, respectively (p = .05). Progress to ulterior stages of change was 43.3%, 32.1%, and 18.2%, respectively (p = .02). Stage of change at baseline and intervention predicted smoking status at 6 months.
This tailored smoking cessation program with telephone follow-up significantly increased smoking cessation at 6 months, and progression to ulterior stages of change. The telephone follow-up was an important adjunct. It is, therefore, recommended to include such comprehensive smoking cessation programs within hospital settings for individuals with CVD.