The human p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) is considered as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia because of its functions in neurodevelopment. To test for an association between TP53 and schizophrenia, both the case-control study and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were performed on genotype data from eight polymorphisms in TP53. Our samples included 286 Toronto schizophrenia cases and 264 controls, and 163 Portuguese nuclear families. In the Toronto case-control study significant differences of allele frequencies of the CAA Ins/Del (p=0.027) and the 16bp Ins/Del (p=0.022) were detected. In TDT analysis we found significant differences for transmission of the CAA Ins/Del (p=0.017) in Portuguese schizophrenia families. Haplotype analysis also showed a significant association between TP53 and schizophrenia. These results provide further evidence that TP53 may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.