Ecology is considered an interdisciplinary bank of knowledge about the relations of humans with nature and anthropogenic environment. The central issue of ecology is prevention of the global catastrophe in consequence of anthropogenic factors. The dire threat of the ecological catastrophe comes from breaching the principle of co-evolution of mankind and nature due to the unilateral prevalence of human interests during formation of the civilization. Issues revealed by the analysis of the present-day knowledge of ecology can be resolved by creating an ecology-oriented ethic system (moral imperative or ecology-focused morals) an ecological imperative (internationally endorsed bans), and taking actions toward the recovery of ruined and preservation of survived eco-systems. Of special concern is analysis of the doctrine of noosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky. The authors also dwell upon eco-monitoring and prediction with account of the rhythm of animate nature and abiocoen.