The marriage structure of Nganasans during the time period from 1796 to 1991 and genealogy of carriers of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes was studied in a sample of 280 individuals. It was shown that, from the beginning of its formation to the late 1970s, the population exhibited high endogamy (1976, 83.8%; 1926, 88.4%; 1976, 74.3%). The main source of traditional marriage migration (preferentially female) was populations of Entsy and, indirectly, Nentsy. Intense assimilation of Nganasans by the immigrant population, and to a lesser extent, by Dolgans, in the second half of the 20th century resulted in a reduction of endogamy index in Avam Nganasans to 42.5% by 1991. Assimilation by the immigrants was predominantly paternal, promoting preservation of the historically formed genetic diversity of the Nganasan mitochondrial gene pool. Genealogical analysis of mtDNA haplotypes showed that a relatively high total frequency of Western Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups (20.4%) in the Mongoloid (according to anthropological type) Nganasan population is explained not only by the common ethnic origin with Entsy and Nentsy, but also by direct marriage migration from the Entsy population and indirect marriage migration, from the Nentsy population. This migration led to accumulation of Entsy-Nentsy maternal lineages in the genealogy of Avam Nganasans (38.9% of the total number). Of all mtDNA haplotypes, 28.6% were introduced to Avam Nganasans by female Entsy and Nentsy, whereas the total frequency of these haplotypes was 0.204. Genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes was 0.935.