Buccal epithelium cytogenetic disturbances were studied in schoolchildren from Moscow schools, a country school (Novgorod region) and a Moscow boarding school for chindren with musculoskeletal diseases (scoliosis and kyphosis). The minimal mean frequency of cells with karyorrhexis were revealed in children from an ecologically pure Novgorod region. Moscow schoolchildren demonstrated more than 13-fold higher level of this parameter. Children with spinal deformities had an intermediate frequency. Cells with karyolysis minimal mean frequency were observed in Moscow pupils. Children from Novgorod demonstrated a statistically valid higher level of this parameter, and the maximum was reached in Moscow boarding school. No difference between these groups was revealed in a study of the mean frequency of binucleated cells, cells with pyknosis, cells with micronuclei, or "broken eggs" incidence. Laser correlation spectrometry (LCS) method was used for parallel studies. It was shown that the distribution of spectra in Moscow pupils and in children with spinal deformities differs from that in children living in ecologically pure region. Normal spectra prevailed in pupils of country school, who demonstrated, in addition, high levels of anabolic and low levels of catabolic type metabolism. The examined Moscow schoolchildren demonstrated almost the same incidence of normal spectra. They differed from the country children by statistically valid reduction of anabolic type spectra, and by increased levels of catabolic type spectra. Young patients with spinal deformities demonstrated the maximum incidence of catabolic type spectra. The authors suggest the availability of a qualitative correlation between both the monitoring methods used in this study. It was shown that children living in unfavorable conditions and patients with musculoskeletal diseases manifested an enhanced incidence of buccal epithelium cells with karyorrhexis and karyolysis, as well as higher levels of catabolic type spectra accompanied by reduction of normal and anabolic type spectra.