The results of the cytogenetic investigation of people, which were exposed to radiation in the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident, were presented. Also the possibilities of the application of cytogenetic findings for dose estimations and for the prediction of the radiation influence consequences were examined. During the period of time since 1986 till 2004 the cytogenetic investigations of 1724 liquidators participating in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident were carried out. The radiation dose estimated by the frequency of dicentrics in 1986 was about 0.16 Gy. The doses for liquidators were determined by the frequency of translocations (FISH method) during the period from 1992 till 1995. For liquidators who worked in Chernobyl only in 1986 the average dose of radiation was about 0.19 Gy and for liquidators who worked repeatedly during the period from 1986 till 1995 - 0.39 Gy. There was shown that during the whole period of investigation (1986-2004) the frequency of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher than the control level. The cytogenetic investigation of Bryansk region inhabitants which was carried out in 1992-1994 discovered heightened value in 5 times than the control one. Findings are of great importance for the prediction of ill effects of radiation and for the development of sensitive criterions for early exposure disturbances in state of health.