A multitude of factors influence condom use self-efficacy, including age, gender, ethnicity, condom use attitudes and barriers, sexual experience, and partner characteristics. The current study integrated past research by evaluating these factors in a large, ethnically diverse university sample of women and men (N=665). The role of gender on condom use and sexuality variables was assessed across ethnic groups. Hierarchical linear regressions were then calculated to explain levels of condom use self-efficacy using the hypothesized sexual predictors in nonvirgin, sexually active, and recent condom use subsamples. Predictors explained 18-45% of variance in condom use self-efficacy. Findings suggest that a few key variables accounted for the majority of variance in condom use self-efficacy: condom use attitudes, condom use barriers, satisfaction with sexual communication, anticipated number of sexual partners, one-time sexual encounters, and ethnic identity. Significant gender differences emerged in condom use self-efficacy, condom use attitudes, and condom use behaviors. Ethnic differences were found in range of sexual experience and sexual partner characteristics. It is recommended that future studies examining sexual risk behavior incorporate the diverse sexual factors that affect condom use self-efficacy.
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