Archaeological investigations have been ongoing in the cemetery at Hofstadir in MÃ½vatnssveit since the summer of 1999. To date, the remains of two chapels as well as 78 skeletons have been excavated, dated to between the 11th and 15th century. A skeleton was excavated in the summer of 2003 which showed pathological changes indicative of a malignant disease. Palaeopathological cases of malignancies are very rare, and it is therefore important to report on each case. Skeleton HST-027 was a female, aged 45-50 years at the time of death. Standard osteological methods were used to determine the sex, age and stature. Macroscopic analysis was carried out on the skeleton and all pathological changes on each bone described. The cranium, ribs, left os coxa and all left long bones were then radiographed to aid in the diagnosis. The analysis showed lytic lesions in all the flat bones, as well as the vertebrae, ribs and the proximal end of the left femur, all changes indicative of multiple myeloma. Palaeopathologically myeloma and metastatic cancer (then usually due to breast cancer in the case of women) are often difficult to distinguish. However there is no new bone formation surrounding the lesions, which means that metastatic cancer is unlikely to be the cause. Skeleton HST-027 from Hofstadir is the first published case of malignant disease in Iceland, and one of the clearer cases of myeloma in an archaeological specimen, but to date, approximately twenty cases have been reported world-wide.