The focus on gender-specific genes associated with female suicide is justified by the possible dimorphic nature of the serotonergic system and by the greater number of suicide attempts in females. We performed analysis of the promoter (5-HTTLPR) and intron 2 (STin2 VNTR) polymorphisms and haplotypes of the serotonin transporter gene in Russian suicide attempters, separately in men and women. Our findings indicate the contribution of the SLC6A4 gene to susceptibility for suicidal behavior in women, but not in men. The L/L genotype (p = 0.013, OR = 2.09) and L10 haplotype (p = 0.04, OR = 1.77) were associated with suicide in Russian women only. Further investigations of this gene in different phenotypic groups are necessary.