This study developed and tested a chart audit tool to assess the implementation of evidence-based recommendations for vascular access nursing assessment and device selection. Chart audits of 71 patients were conducted in a home healthcare agency and a community hospital prior to guideline implementation. Observations of initial infusion therapy and chart audit documentation of 31 patients were also compared. Results from observations indicated that nurses provided care consistent with the recommendations, but findings from chart audits indicated that assessment and decisionmaking were poorly documented. Studies that use only precomparison and postcomparison by chart audit may miss changes in nursing practice.