We studied predictors of no prenatal care (PNC) and influence of no PNC on pregnancy outcome in a multisite study of 1071 women with syphilis in Russia. We assessed PNC utilization, HIV testing, syphilis treatment, and pregnancy outcome. We found that 37% of women with syphilis received no PNC, and 1% was HIV infected. Lacking official residency status was independently related to no PNC (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.1; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 5.3-12.3). Among women with inadequately treated current syphilis, those without PNC were more likely to have a stillborn infant than those with PNC (25% vs. 3%, odds ratio [OR] 9.5, 95% CI 4.0-23.5). Women with adequately treated current syphilis and no PNC were more likely to deliver a low birth weight (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.8-8.1) or preterm infant (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.8-8.7). Women with previous or current syphilis and no PNC were significantly more likely to abandon their infants.