Rape plants are cultivated in southern and central Sweden. These partly wind pollinated plants have an exceedingly rich blooming period with pollinating times (for rape and turnip rape) from 10 May to 24 June (+/- 1--2 weeks). In a patient material from southern Sweden with bronchial asthma and other allergic manifestations, rape pollen allergy was found to occur quite frequently. In 366 consecutive patients positive intracutaneous skin tests to rape pollen extracts were found in 85 patients (23%). 54 patients with positive i.c. skin tests for rape pollen were provocated: 81% of them had positive provocation tests. Patients with symptoms of hay fever and/or bronchial asthma during the pollinating season in regions where rape and related species are cultivated should be examined for rape pollen allergy with i.c. skin tests or RAST.