Mean stature in a population has been observed to vary with living conditions. If, and how, this affects sexual dimorphism in stature is not fully understood. We analyzed stature data from Swedish populations from the 10th to the end of the 20th century to investigate if male stature is more plastic than female stature in response to environmental changes. Further, we examined if there, as a consequence of this, exists an allometric relationship between male and female stature that is not caused by genetic factors, coupling greater stature with greater dimorphism. We found no significant change in stature from the 10th century to the 17th century, but a clear increase in both male and female stature during the 20th century, most likely because of improved living conditions. Regression analyses revealed no consistent change in sexual stature dimorphism over time for any of the time periods, including the 20th century. Further, we found no significant allometric relationship between male and female stature, and could consequently not identify any significant relationship between stature and stature dimorphism. Thus, contrary to previous suggestions, the regressions did not provide support for the assertion that male stature is more sensitive to environmental changes than female stature, nor that stature dimorphism increases with increasing stature.