In the children and adolescents of the Russian Federation, there is an increase in the incidence of a number of nosological entities, a significant prevalence of chronic diseases, and a reduction in health quality in children. According to the statistical data, in the past 5 years, the overall incidence has increased by 16% in children (aged 0-14 years) (171268 per 100,000 children in 2005) by 18% in adolescents. The incidence of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, anemias, as well diseases of the respiratory, urogenital, and nervous systems, and congenital anomalies continues to increase. Along with socioeconomic causes, this is all due to the negative influence of environmental factors, dietary defects, and, in some cases, poor upbringing and teaching conditions, which do not comply with the hygienic standards and sanitary rules. Under the established conditions, the maintenance and improvement of children's health is the most important state task, the provision of their sanitary and epidemiological welfare being one of the major constituents in its accomplishment. In the past 3 years, the principal state sanitary inspector has issued 17 regulations on different aspects of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of children and adolescents. The preparation of the draft "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" has been currently completed. The Group of Eight Summit has noted that resolute opposition to threats of infectious diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, is vital to the global development and welfare of mankind. It has adopted the resolution that it is essential to make specific achievements in the strengthening international cooperation in the surveillance and monitoring of infectious diseases; to intensify researches; to second the efforts of appropriate international organizations, which are aimed at effectively opposing the outbreaks of avian influenza, and to prepare for a possible pandemic; to intensify measures against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria; to make the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases more accessible to the population; to avert and eliminate the epidemic consequences of natural disasters and man-caused catastrophes. Moreover, Russia has taken a number of obligations to finance appropriate programs. Of particular importance is the implementation of the Priority National Health Project involving additional immunization of the population and primarily children against viral hepatitis B (VHB), rubella, influenza, and poliomyelitis. This year, 4.1 billion rubles has been allocated within the framework of the priority national project for the purchase of vaccines to immunize 10 million children and adolescents against VHB, 5 million children against rubella, 150 thousand children against poliomyelitis with inactivated vaccine, 22 million individuals, including children going to preschool facilities and lst-4th-form pupils, against influenza. The guidelines for action aimed at providing the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, may include as follows: to further improve the normative and methodical bases; to complete the development of the draft "The Principles in the Policy of State in the Healthy Nutrition of the Russian Federation' Population for 2007-2010", "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" and submit them to the Government of the Russian Federation for approval; to introduce preventive educational programs into the general educational establishments in order to mould in children and adolescents healthy lifestyle habits, a conscientious attitude towards to the health of theirs' and those around them.