The heterogeneity of diagnoses included in the concept of chronic pain, as well as differences in adaptation to the situation involving chronic illness, imply the need for a variety of rehabilitation forms. Despite evidence concerning the success of multidisciplinary behaviour-orientated rehabilitation programmes, not all participants experience the expected change. The aim of the present study was to develop and test the face validity and the stability over time of a Swedish self-administered questionnaire: the Conceptions of Pain and Rehabilitation Questionnaire (CPRQ) for persons with chronic pain. The questionnaire is to be used as a guiding tool in planning for rehabilitation. Its purpose is to distinguish between individuals with expectations of and motivation for active rehabilitation and those with expectations of more supportive forms of therapy. The face validity was mainly obtained by target-group discussions including persons with chronic pain and rehabilitation staff with experience in the rehabilitation of persons with chronic pain. The test-retest stability analysis was performed using a model for identifying occasional and systematic disagreement. The questionnaire in its final form showed face validity and reliability in terms of stability over time. Further steps in the development process will include laying down the guiding principles for the questionnaire, based on new focus-group discussions, and completing work on the manual by including information about the origin of the questionnaire and instructions for its administration. Thereafter, the next step in the development process will be a test of responsiveness, i.e. to examine the degree to which the questionnaire really serves its purpose.