The ageing process of the population in the Samara area, as well as in Russia as a whole, occurs within the background context of a specific demographic situation. This involves the steady natural decline of the population which is not compensated by a positive balance of migration. Research has been carried out in the Samara area from 1995 to 2005 and relates to the ageing of the population. Specific factors addressed include: old age, an index of longevity, and a gender parity of "long-livers". The marked increase in the longevity of the population has been noticed as compared with previous decades. During the last decade the gender parity of "long-livers" of the Samara area remains 1:5 (male: female accordingly). Thus, there is an expressed increase in the index of longevity in the Samara region.