Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were analyzed in muscle tissue from edible fish species caught in the second largest freshwater lake in Sweden, Lake Vättern (LV), and in the brackish water Baltic Sea (BS). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS found. PFOS concentrations were higher in LV (medians 2.9-12 ng g(-1) fresh weight) than in BS fish (medians 1.0-2.5 ng g(-1) fresh weight). Moreover, LV fish was more contaminated with several other PFAS than BS fish. This may be due to anthropogenic discharges from urban areas around LV. The PFAS pattern differed between LV and BS fish, indicating different sources of contamination for the two study areas. Human exposure to PFOS via fish intake was calculated for three study groups, based on consumption data from literature. The groups consisted of individuals that reported moderate or high consumption of BS fish or high consumption of LV fish, respectively. The results showed that PFOS intake strongly depended on individual fish consumption as well as the fish catchment area. Median PFOS intakes were estimated to 0.15 and 0.62 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) d(-1) for the consumers of moderate and high amounts of BS fish, respectively. For the group with high consumption of LV fish a median PFOS intake of 2.7 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) was calculated. Fish consumption varied considerably within the consumer groups, with maximum PFOS intakes of 4.5 (BS fish) or 9.6 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) (LV fish). Comparison of our results with literature data on PFOS intake from food suggests that fish from contaminated areas may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.