Health Canada has proposed new fortification policies that will allow manufacturers to add vitamins and minerals to a wide variety of foods at their discretion and increase nutrient additions to breakfast cereals. Our objective was to examine the potential impact of these policies on nutrient inadequacies and excesses in the Canadian population. Using dietary intake data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004), usual intake distributions from food were estimated for vitamins A and C, folate, niacin, calcium, and magnesium for all age/sex groups. The prevalence of individuals with inadequate nutrient intake and the proportion of individuals with intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) were assessed where possible, assuming full implementation of the proposed policies. To approximate a "mature market" scenario, consumption patterns of fortified foods in the United States were estimated and applied to Canadian intake data. Full implementation resulted in marked reductions in inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, magnesium, and folate, and improvements in calcium intakes for some age/sex groups. However, it caused intakes of folate, niacin, vitamin A, and calcium to rise above the UL, particularly among younger age groups. Although increased food fortification may reduce the apparent prevalence of inadequate intakes for some nutrients, there is no evidence of inadequacies for niacin or several other nutrients slated for addition. Our modeling suggests that Health Canada's proposed policies are misaligned with the nutritional needs of the population, because they are not rooted in an assessment of current nutrient intake patterns.