The results of the study of quality of pulmonological medical care are presented. Overall, 366 out-patient case histories with the most commonly encountered diseases of respiratory system were submitted to expert assessment. The raw material was collected in 2005-2006 in 3 cities of the Republic of Dagestan. The expertise revealed that about a quarter of patients were examined timely and more than two third of them not timely. The discrepancy of diagnoses made by physicians and experts took place in 16.1% of cases. The expertise of treatment quality revealed that in 10.1% of cases the prescribed treatment was inopportune, in 24.9% it was inadequate and in 7.8% it was redundant. The research data was used to develop the guidelines and proposals regarding the enhancement of quality and effectiveness of pulmonological medical care of population.