This study was designed to analyse dynamic characteristics of planned and emergency surgical care provided to patients with chronic tonsillitis (CT) in 3 large hospital of Moscow during the period between 2002 to 2006. The number of planed surgical interventions for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis performed during 5 years decreased almost two-fold. In contrast, the total number of urgent operations for surgical drainage of paratonisillar abscess in all clinics of the city during the last 10 years increased by a factor of 2. Results of bacteriological studies of species composition of microflora in patients with CT suggest the relationship between the incidence of this pathology and acute rheumatic fever. Analysis of activities aimed at the prevention of chronic tonsillitis (based in the first place at specialized dispensary facilities) has demonstrated that the number of patients involved in relevant monitoring programs is rather small and those in need of radical sanation of inflammatory CT foci are not referred for surgical treatment at the early stages of the disease as required by the current diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic tonsillitis.