Mortality rates were found to increase in three districts of the region (Kamensky, Bogdanovichsky, and Kamyshlovsky ones) after radiation accidents. The highest rate was characteristic of the Kamensky District. A substantial rise in mortality rates was recorded in the first decade following radiation accidents and in the 1980s and 1990s. In these study areas, the change in death rate was most evident for causes, such as circulatory diseases, malignancies, and infectious diseases. An increase in the rates of mortality from perinatal abnormalities and congenital defects was observed in children.