Adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer was approved for provincial insurance coverage in Alberta, Canada in 2004. The purpose of this study was to measure factors related to uptake of chemotherapy in eligible patients and compare toxicity and survival outcomes in the Alberta population with those found in clinical trials. All Alberta residents diagnosed with stage IB-IIB NSCLC from 2004 to 2006 who had surgery and a consultation with an oncologist to discuss initial treatment were included in the study. Diagnostic, demographic, and vital statistics data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry; chart reviews were conducted to identify details related to treatments discussed, refused, co-morbidities, and toxicity. Analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with discussion and receipt of chemotherapy and toxicity. Toxicity and survival were calculated and compared to clinical trial results. 226 patients were included in the study. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not recommended to 57 patients (25%) and 30 patients (13%) refused chemotherapy. Primary reasons for not recommending chemotherapy were co-morbidities and/or frailty (24 patients). Of the 139 patients who began chemotherapy, 47 (34%) stopped treatment early. Stage II patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had over a 2-fold decrease in risk of death compared to those who did not receive chemotherapy after adjusting for age and co-morbidities. Efforts to improve uptake of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II NSCLC should be made as the survival advantage appears to be comparable to that found in clinical trials.