The results of study of medical social risk factors of developing the iron-deficiency anemia in pregnant women are presented. The medical case history data, the characteristics of pregnancy, delivery and puerperal period course, the indicators of laboratory and instrumental findings are discussed in their dynamics. The analysis of significance of risk factors is carried out, the results of comparing of parameters of basic and control groups according Student's test were used. The most significant risk factors were revealed. They are to be taking into account in forecasting anemia and in choosing the corresponding preventive and curative measures at the first visit of pregnant woman to the maternity clinic.