The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ischemic heart disease is increasing. Moreover, patients with DM experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have an increased risk of adverse outcomes after revascularization compared to non-diabetics. Data have suggested that the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab might be more efficient in diabetics than in those without DM.
We evaluated the effect of abciximab in patients with DM and ACS from our percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry. Among 5,003 patients with ACS who underwent PCI, 629 had DM. Patients were followed for up to 3 years with regard to mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Despite a more severe risk profile, adjusted analyses revealed a marked reduction in TVR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.30; confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.63; p = 0.002), mortality (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.28-0.97; p = 0.04) and the combined endpoint, also including MI (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.35-0.79; p = 0.002) in the DM patients who received abciximab compared to those who did not, resulting in a risk of reaching the endpoints at levels similar to the risk in patients without DM. The reduction in MI was not significant.
Our findings suggest that abciximab administered to ACS patients with DM during PCI reduces mortality and the need for TVR to rates similar to those seen in patients without DM and far below the risk in DM patients who do not receive abciximab.