Conventional clinicopathologic risk factors have failed to accurately predict the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer (BC).
To evaluate karyopherin-a2 (KPNA2) expression as a progression marker in patients with non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) treated by conservative methods and as a prognostic marker in patients with invasive BC undergoing radical cystectomy (RC).
Two different tissue microarrays were constructed, one with 234 primary Ta/T1 tumours from patients treated by transurethral resection of the bladder and one with 377 tumours from RC patients.
KPNA2 expression based on immunohistochemistry.
Risk of progression of Ta/T1 patients to muscle-invasive BC was estimated in clinical follow-up to progression or a minimum of 53 mo. Risk of recurrent disease and death following RC was estimated in clinical follow-up of a minimum of 24 mo in patients alive.
A high KPNA2 expression in Ta/T1 patients was significantly correlated with a higher risk of progression that was independent of conventional risk factors in multivariate analysis. In patients undergoing RC, a high KPNA2 expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis. A high KPNA2 expression was correlated with a higher risk of visceral metastasis rather than lymphatic spread.
KPNA2 expression is a marker for progression of NMIBC and a prognostic marker in patients undergoing RC.