Palivizumab is indicated for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in high-risk children. However, relatively little is known about the current use, compliance, and outcomes associated with this medication.
A prospective, observational, registry based on 27 sites, with monthly follow-up of infants at high risk for RSV who received at least 1 dose of palivizumab during the 2005-2009 RSV seasons.
A total of 5286 children were enrolled (56.6% male; 71.7% white; average gestational age, 32.1 ± 5.5 weeks). Of them, 3741 patients (70.8%) were prophylaxed for prematurity only, 449 (8.5%) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia/chronic lung disease, 508 (9.6%) for congenital heart disease, and 588 (11.1%) for other reasons. Overall, 19,485 doses were given. On average, infants received 86.0% ± 28.4% of their expected number of injections; 71.2% of infants received their injections in the recommended time periods. Of the 5286 participants enrolled, 308 patients were hospitalized for respiratory tract illness (hospitalization rate, 5.8%). The RSV-hospitalization rate was calculated as 1.38%. Having siblings increased likelihood of hospitalization (66.9% vs. 55.7%, P