The article deals with the comprehensive expertise of quality of diagnostics of bronchial asthma in ambulatory polyclinic institutions of pediatric profile. The following techniques were applied: the retrospective analysis of all cases of bronchial asthma among children of City of Yugorsk of Hanti-Mansiisky autonomous okrug (n = 92), expertise of the causes of late diagnostics and possible ways of optimization of earlier diagnostics of bronchial asthma in ambulatory polyclinic institution (20 experts), testing the pediatricians working in children polyclinics (n = 95) on the knowledge of dealing with bronchial asthma. The late diagnostics is ascertained in 95% of cases and average period of diagnostics delay consisted 3 days. The leading role of inadequate theoretical background of pediatricians as a "triggering device" in progressive development of disease is established. The necessity to develop various forms of ongoing training of physicians of primary care for optimizing modern diagnostics of bronchial asthma in polyclinic conditions is justified.