Physical development was assessed in 2329 Moscow schoolchildren and 1433 Kiev ones aged 8 to 11 and 15 to 17 years. The Moscow and Kiev children aged 8 to 11 years did not differ in the basic anthropometric indices of physical development and force capacities. Gracilization processes were prevalent in the Kiev schoolchildren. Statistically significant differences were established in respiratory capacities: lung capacity was significantly higher in the Moscow children aged 8 to 10 years than in the Kiev ones of their age. Climatic and geographical features were found in the physical development of the Kiev teenagers: significantly higher chest circumference was observed in 15-16-year-old girls and 15-year-old boys than in the Moscow children of the same age. It is stated that the force capacities of the Kiev teenagers were significantly lower in all age-sex groups than in the Muscovites of the same age. It is proposed to activate preventive measures aimed at enhancing the functional capacities of the cardiorespiratory system primarily in the children living in Kiev.