Genome variability and changes in immune homeostasis, induced in man in the course of long-term industrial contact with ionizing radiation (IR) sources were studied by using unique biomaterials stored in the Radiobiological Repository for Human Tissues at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, FMBA. The biomaterials, peripheral blood samples and blood DNA were obtained from the "Mayak" PA employers occupationally exposed to prolonged external gamma-radiation and/or internal alpha-radiation from incorporated 239Pu in a wide range of accumulated doses. A significant increase in the polymorphism of microsatellite-associated peripheral blood DNA repeats was revealed in a group of persons with accumulated doses of external gamma-radiation above 2.0 Gy, as well as in the descendants of parents with preconceptive doses of higher than 2.0 Gy. In persons whose parents had a preconceptive dose above 2.0 Gy, an increase in the gene p53 mutation rate was observed, and descendants of persons with dose of 3.0 Gy and higher showed mtDNA heteroplasmy, regardless of the sex of an exposed parent. Changes in the expression of membrane markers for the effector and regulatory T-lymphocytes depending on radiation type and dose load were determined. The growth factor level variations (TGF-beta1, EGF, HGF, FGF) in peripheral blood serum in persons exposed to radiation from gamma- or alpha-sources, allow us to consider them as biomarkers of radiation-induced disturbances in immune homeostasis. The concentration changes of TGF-beta1, apoptosis proteins (p53, TPA-cyk, sAPO-1/Fas), and the adhesion molecule sCD27 in the case of cardiovascular diseases in the serum of both irradiated and non-irradiated "Mayak" PA employers point to the information value of these immune response characteristics as specific biomarkers of cardiac disorders. It is proposed that the revealed changes in immune homeostasis and in the variability of somatic cell genome may provoke development of tumors and cardiovascular diseases in man in delayed periods after prolonged exposure to IR.