This study was sought to evaluate the efficacy and durability of sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of bladder pain syndrome (BPS) patients.
A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who had unilateral sacral nerve stimulator (InterStim®) for refractory BPS between June 2002 and December 2004. Patients were qualified for permanent implantation by showing = 50% improvement in their bladder pain and voiding symptoms 1-week post-percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE). Voiding diary was completed at pre-implantation, 1 year, and on the last visit. Urinary distress inventory short form was completed pre-implantation and on the last visit. Bladder pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale. Primary outcome was improvement in bladder pain. Differences among groups were compared by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistical significance was set at P = 0.05.
Twenty-one female patients diagnosed with BPS had PNE; 11 patients (52%) showed = 50% improvement in their bladder pain and voiding symptoms and they consider candidates for permanent implantation (Table I), while 10 patients (48%) failed to show 50% improvement in their voiding symptoms or bladder pain (Table II). In those 11 patients who underwent permanent implantation, the average patient's age was 44.3 ± 8.9 years; average time since diagnosis was 3 ± 0.8 years; the average follow- up was 71.5 ± 9.3 months (Table III). There was significant improvement in the bladder pain and voiding parameters at 1-year follow-up, which was maintained at 5-year follow-up. There was continuous improvement in urgency (1.2 ± 0.68) at 1-year follow-up, and (0.98 ± 0.72) at the last visit. Average voided volume was also continuously improved from 242 ± 62.7 ml at 1-year follow-up to 276 ± 64.7 ml on the last visit.
Sacral neuromodulation as part of multimodal treatment provides an effective long-term treatment option for sub-group of refractory BPS.