Chlamydia-related bacteria, new members of the order Chlamydiales, are suggested to be associated with respiratory disease. We used real-time PCR to investigate the prevalence of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Protochlamydia spp., Rhabdochlamydia spp., Simkania negevensis and Waddlia chondrophila in samples taken from patients with suspected respiratory tract infections. Of the 531 samples analyzed, the subset of 136 samples contained 16 (11.8%) samples positive for Rhabdochlamydia spp. DNA. P. acanthamoebae, Protochlamydia spp., S. negevensis and W. chondrophila DNA were not detected among the respiratory samples investigated. These results suggest an association of Rhabdochlamydia spp. with respiratory disease.