The abnormal human hemoglobin Malmö (beta97FG4 His leads to Gln) has been studied and its properties are compared with those of normal adult hemoglobin A. The data presented here show that the ring-current shifted proton resonances of both HbCO and HbO2 Malmö are very different from the corresponding forms of Hb A. The hyperfine shifted proton resonances of deoxy-Hb Malmö do not differ drastically from those of deoxy-Hb A. This result, together with the finding that the exchangeable proton resonances of the deoxy form of the two hemoglobins are similar, suggests that unliganded Hb Malmö can assume a deoxy-like quaternary structure both in the absence and presence of organic phosphates We have also compared the properties of Hb Malmö with those of Hb Chesapeake (alpha92FG4 Arg leads to Leu). This allows us to study the properties of two abnormal human hemoglobins with mutations at homologous positions of the alpha and beta chains in the three-dimenstional structure of the hemoglobin molecule. Our present results suggest that the mutaion at betaFG4 has its greatest effect on the teritiary structure of the heme pocket of the liganded forms of the hemoglobin while the mutation at alphaFG4 alters the deoxy structure of the hemoglogin molecule but does not alter the teriary structure of the heme pockets of the liganded form of the hemoglobin molecule. Both hemoglobins undergo a transition from the deoxy (T) to the oxy (R) quaternary structure upon ligation. The abnormally high oxygen affinities and low cooperativities of these two hemoglobins must therefore be due to either the structural differences which we have observed and/or to an altered transition between the T and R structures.