The population study permitted to establish the role of Russian military physicians in organization of medical business in Dagestan. The prevalence of acute epidemiologic diseases in pre-revolutionary Dagestan is examined. It is derived that mass propagation of infections was supported by cultural and economic backwardness, non-sanitary conditions in cities, lifestyle of mountain dwellers. The tradition to visit ill fellow villager resulted into mass morbidity and even in death collapse of entire population of mountain settlements (auls). The positive conditions to develop medical business developed after Dagestan joined Russia. The activities of Russian military physicians in the Caucasus coincided with the full swing of various infection epidemics among soldiers and residents. The measures undertaken by Russian military physicians permitted to liquidate the epidemics.