Cytochromes c3 of different strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria have been purified and tested for their capacity to reduce colloidal sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The results are in good agreement with the activities reported for the whole cells. Cytochrome c3 is the sulfur reductase of some strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway 4 and sulfate-reducing bacterium strain 9974 from which the sulfur reductase activity can be purified with the cytochrome c3. In contrast, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cytochrome c3 is inhibited by the product of the reaction namely hydrogen sulfide. Chloramphenicol has no effect on the sulfur reductase activity of D. desulfuricans Norway 4 when resting cells grown on lactate-sulfate medium are put in the presence of colloidal sulfur. This shows that the sulfur reductase activity is constitutive and corresponds to the fact that colloidal sulfur grown cells do not contain more cytochrome c3 (or another sulfur reductase) than lactate-sulfate-grown cells.